Ke Ao Maoli
Many are trying to find factual history and status of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Often the U.S. has clouded the facts to deflect its criminal lawlessness in relation to Hawaii. Let's put these things in its proper perspective without the U.S. semantics and terminology to obfuscate Hawaii's history in relation to the U.S.A.
U.S. revised history to validate themselves is based on their doctrines of Manifest Destiny, Imperialism, expansionism, WASP racist ethnocentrism, and U.S. hegemony. The forced assimilation of Americanization in Hawaii is a heinous crime as the Germanization of Europe during Hitler's Occupation.
We know for a fact that the U.S. had its eye on the Hawaiian Kingdom during its evolution since 1795 when Kamehameha I put it under one rule. Since Captain Cook became aware of the Hawaiian Islands and placed it on their maps, competition with the European countries and the fledgling Anglo Saxon United States of America looked with interest on the Hawaiian Islands. As customary in Europe and the Papal Bulls of the Roman Catholic Church, expansionism and colonization practices to reinforced themselves to increase their resources for pecuniary purposes especially with their goals to reach India, the land of wealth and riches.
The mainstream world civilization was in the Middle East and Asia up until the 12th century when Western Europe began to adopt, learn and use that Eastern civilization to develop its own structure to gain its position as he mainstream civilization in the world. Their practices affected the Hawaiian Islands as it did worldwide. The Papal Bulls' doctrines of Terra Nullius, Discovery and conquest was applied even when Christians broke away from the Roman Catholic Church to form their own denomination of churches. Non-Christians, particularly non-Europeans were then considered sub-human and had no rights as alleged declared by their God and religion. Hence, the mindset is imbued in today's Western civilization societies.
This brings us up to the "discovery" of the Hawaiian Islands which Cook named the Sandwich Islands. Great Britain was the first Western country to claim discovery of them and as customary, all other Europeans acknowledge the find and cannot claim what another European country or its colonies has done. Hawaii became a unique situation of this practice since The British King agreed to be the protectorate of the Hawaiian Islands and the autonomy preserved to the Hawaiian King. Kamehameha was able to put all the islands under his rule and accomplished it in 1795.
Kamehameha the Great and his favorite wife Ka'ahumanu became close friends with Captain Vancouver; so much so that Kamehameha and Ka'auhumanu picked Vancouver's brain to learn Western ways and how the various countries inter-related among themselves. The Hawaiian Mindset is to adopt, adapt, and be adept with what they embraced into its society. They were progressive and implemented what works the best for themselves. This kind of thinking holds true today. In the Polynesian Hawaiian society, it is steadfast in malama ka 'aina and being pono.
This brings up the status and position of the Hawaiian Kingdom which negates the doctrines of discovery, conquest, and colonization. Hawaii maintained its autonomy which Great Britain acquiesced in voluntarily. In 1810, Kamehameha I recognized the sovereign independence of Argentina, being the first country to do so. Then in 1826, the fledgling U.S.A. unofficially recognized the Hawaiian Kingdom I building its relationship with it as Great Britain had done previously. By 1839, Kamehameha III reformed the Hawaiian Kingdom and declared it to be a sovereign, independent, Christian country and began to align it with the other major countries in the world.
This was further ironized by 1843 whereby Treaties with other countries began in earnest; beginning with Britain, France and later with United States, which eventually over 25 countries recognized the Hawaiian Kingdom's independence and association internationally; the Hawaiian Kingdom had about 95 consuls and legations around the world by the 1890s and was recognized as a neutral nation status in 1854. The Hawaiian Kingdom had its own currency and recognized as one of the richest country per capita of its time. It had also its own postage stamp as being a part of the Universal Postal Union member. It was an active, integral part of the international Family of Nations.
The U.S.A. was being covetous of the Hawaiian Kingdom and sent its missionaries to Hawaii to begin its covert actions. This was coined by Mary Louise Pratt as "anti-conquest theory and strategy". It was in 1826 that U.S. President John Quincy Adams stated that if the U.S. didn't control and influence Hawaii, other countries would; this argument are still used by U.S. Americans today. This was before the recognition of the Hawaiian Kingdom as a peer to major countries beginning in 1843.
The U.S. coveting aggression never ceased but continued by its government and military. The U.S. Executive Branch communicated with Americans in Hawaii, particularly with Lorin Thurston and his comrades, to destabilize the Hawaiian Kingdom government which began overtly with the Bayonet Constitution of 1887. This plot culminated with the U.S. invasion and setting up the U.S. puppet Provisional Government and the commencing of the lawless U.S. belligerent occupation which continues today. This was done with the approval of U.S President Benjamin Harrison.
The Japanese government, concerned for its citizens, was the first country to voice its concerns. In May 31, 1894, the U.S. passed the Turpie Resolution to warn its own officials and other world countries to not interfere with the Hawaii situation as it would be an unfriendly act against the United States of America. It also proclaimed that by right, it totally belongs to the people of Hawaii to establish and maintain its own form of government and domestic policy. This stopped U.S. President from further resolution of the Hawaii situation.
Both treaties of annexation failed and were rejected by the U.S. Congress. The Ku'e Petitions of 1897 was instrumental in answering the Turpie Resolution and asserting the rights of the Hawaiian Subjects. This means, they never recognized the authority nor jurisdiction of the U.S. Republic of Hawaii which usurped the Hawaiian Kingdom's government, Bureaus and Departments. Thus, what people think is the alleged State of Hawaii government is actually the Hawaiian Kingdom's government and its bona fide Hawaiian Kingdom subjects still exists.
Today, the U.S. reiterates its semantics, labels, and definitions to divert the focus of its criminal and lawless actions and continuous violations against its belligerent occupation and of the Hawaiian neutrality status. The U.S. uses terminologies it uses for native Americans and colonized places; all which does not apply to Hawaii. This play on words confuses people and purposely creates disinformation for the misinformed. The Hawaiian Kingdom Nation-State and its subjects/citizens still exists albeit under U.S. belligerent occupation. Its government is still in operation but controlled by the U.S. alleged State of Hawaii.
The only ultimate solution is for the U.S. to de-occupy the Hawaiian Kingdom, then remove its military, pay for restitution and reparations for its wilful violations against the Hawaiian Kingdom and its subjects/citizens, and restore all the treaties with the Hawaiian Kingdom.