Since I cannot post any blog or participate in commenting on a blog, I've decided to respond through the forum. da princess was questioning the terminology of haole and ha'ole. We should remember that the okina and kahako are modern diacritical marks to enable non-speakers to pronounce the words more correctly as they learn the language. Here's my comment to her question:

From what I learned from my tutuman was that it meant foreign or foreigner. It never had to do with race or ethnicity unless you qualify the word; e.g., haole kina = chinese foreigner; haole kepani = Japanese from Japan; haole melika = American foreigner, haole palani = french foreigner, etc. You get the picture.

How did people assume it meant white man was the fact that the first haole that was introduced to the islands were white men. Those white men took it upon themselves to identify themselves to mean that the word identified them without qualification. Soon Hawaiians bought into the perverse definition to mean only white men. Nonetheless, the word still meant foreigner. The usage is used properly yet the whites identify with that reference to them as being a white person. Since they are not natives but visitors or settlers from a foreign country and still are foreigners, they are referred to as haole, which is correct; but it also means any foreigner no matter the race or ethnicity that consider themselves as U.S. Americans or from another foreign country and not a Hawaii national. So the reference is to their foreign origin. The whites claim the word to mean only them and that's when it got more confusing and perverse.

The two other words that are similar but subtle in pronounciation is ha'ole and hao-le (emphasis on the "le").which my grandfather's cousin, Pilahi Paki, explained to me.

Ha'ole again referred primarily to the first foreigners that arrived in Hawai'i. Back then they were more stoic and very pale. They were expressionless and appeared that they had no soul. They weren't as animated as what Hawaiians regarded as a human that was alive, thus, no-breath. Here again it does not emphasize race or ethnicity because a person's demeanor could be souless and dead-like and lifeless.

The other word is hao-le which again doesn't refer to a specific ethnicity or race; but actuates a behavior which appeared to be characteristic with many whites and americanized non-whites. It refers to a person that is forceful that grabs or grasp, pillage, plunder or is a robber who goes about listless ly or aimlessly who appears to do no work and is lazy in the eyes of the Hawaiian. Unfortunately, this characterization falls to the white businessman or a business person that doesn't seem to do much work except to order people around or aimlessly going around and robbing people and scamming them. Land grabbing; not working or it but paying people coins for their work. Sound familiar?

All three words have different meanings and the pronounciation is slight that it is similar and easily be misinterpreted if one's ears cannot hear the subtlties. So don't let foreigner take our language and redefine it. Don't buy into it and adjoin yourself to that mindset. These U.S. Americans (haole melika) are foreigners; they are not Hawai'i nationals and the usage is proper to identify them as who they are. I do hope this clarifies it more accurately and that we know the usage is not in reference specifically to caucasians alone. The person is either haole or kama'aina regardless of race or ethnicity. Many of us are part-Hawaiian and part-haole due to the descendency from a foreigner or from a foreign origin. We embrace our ancestors of foreign origins as well because without them, we wouldn't be here. Don't be bamboozled by whites that claim we are racist. Racism is a caucasian malady and their problem; not ours.

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Mahala ia oe e Uncle Tane for your clear and concise explaination of the above mentioned words. The only reason we have allowed ourselves to be "bamboozled" as you say, is a result of ignorance and a disconnect from our olelo makuahine. Though no fault of ours, we have many options available to us today to overcome that disconnect. I have taken about 5 years of Hawaiian Language classes over the course of my life, but continue to struggle along. As a child growing up we learned many Hawaiian words but were never spoken to in fluent Hawaiian. Today I try to expose my moopuna to a little bit at a time, so he gets use to hearing the language and feels comfortable expressing himself. It is amazing how well he picks it up and a testament to how important it is to begin when they are little keiki.

Insight from kou mau kupuna that you shared gives historical insight to the usage of these words and how the meaning of the word haole has evolved over the years to become a reference to all white people period. Like anything else, we have to be wary when others take ownership of our language and as you say, re-define it. Knowledge is the key to counter-acting that. So again, mahalo nui for sharing your ike on this subject.
Many of us realize that the language taught at the university is primarily missionary Hawaiian and much of the nuances are lost. I learned that the mana in the language is more the tone in which it is used and not what is deemed politically correct by their standards. There are five basic dialects in Hawaiian living language and I'm sure it will naturally evolve as it thrives within our society. That, one cannot escape.

The inflections are more important than the word itself. My tutuman's first language was Hawaiian and American English was his second; he was proficient in both. When people get ma'a with it; the tone and inflections will take on a life of its own. Sometimes we are too critical of ourselves when we deal with our language and expect it to be universalized by everyone that speaks it.

Reflecting on other languages of the world, one can see the different dialects, slangs, colloqialism, familiarity vs formal usage. So it is with the olelo makuahine. The main thing is we can communicate our thoughts. Oddly enough while growing up, I could understand my grandad without being a fluent speaker (which I am not). I still struggle with it but learned my lessons from my kupuna. The odd thing is I had a more difficult time understanding the academic hawaiian which was too rigid. There are those already that have progressed to a more familiar ve4nacular and those that have already grown up speaking the language from their kupuna in a living way.

The mana of the language will return. That will be our triumph. Main thing is we comprehend what we are communicating among us, and that is maika'i nui loa.

Holomua ia kakou.

Aloha kaua e Tane.

IMHO it is open to interpretation and may vary just as our kupuna varied. For example by location/moku. For me my Hilo Grandma spoke fluent olelo matuahine and meant "American and/or European and/or white and/or Caucasian" for "haole."

It was very evident in her dying days when she was in the emergency room with a white doctor. She turned her back to him, did not want to speak to him AT ALL, and had me speak for her.

"Don't be bamboozled by whites that claim we are racist. Racism is a caucasian malady and their problem; not ours."

I can only wish that this was true but sadly this is not. In my experience there are some racist Hawaiians who are just as bad as some Americans who are racist. While Americans tend to be racist against dark skinned people some Hawaiians are racist against light skinned people yet often claim that they are not racist. IMHO both are just as bad. I find it troubling that for a nation that was welcoming, inclusive, and is an epitome of a better nation (Ko Hawai'i Pae Aina) that there are still some Hawaiians who are racist covertly or overtly against haole people.

Malama, Lana
ALoha Lana:

I believe you are speaking from the rammifications of the problem created by the Euro/Anglo countries. The fact that they practice the doctrines of manifest destiny they can't see the big picture.

No matter how one slices it, racism is a problem of the white man and not the other way around. In Hawai'i like many other places, the dynamics are propagand, conditioning and forced assimilation. If there is such a thing as racist Haawaiian; it is that they are Americans with its mindset. The force is militarism which towns that are forced to live side by side that are confronted with racism and nationalism whether within the U.S. or in other countries..

It is action vs reaction. Cause to effects. There is also the variance of blanket profiling out of which people would be more leery of a particular behaviour and attitude. This is not racism but countering white supremacy projected to non-whites. American colonial mindset is enough to be on guard.

Granted, there are a lot of wonderful white people and often we fall in love with those compatible with us who have embraced us. The fact is that it is their society that forces and controls us. For example, their society, culture, heritage and value system and doctrines have supplanted ours and we are expected to assimilate with them. There is no merger; it's an assimilation.

We are taught and conditioned to believe like them which is a cultural clash that not many will subscribe to. Most of us will find a way to merge what is good and not totally assimilate to the WASP ideals and accept an immitation of life. Part of the cynicism is the sense of honor and moral fortitude and respect.

The whites have a habit to use a reverse-racism card when people refuse to be indoctrinated to their ethnocentric WASP society. Consider what language we have been enforced to use; if not we are looked down on as inferior to them. What does the media in various forms project? They are telling you how to think and act to be accepted. It's easier for a white person to be magnanimous in their own culture than a non-white living under that culture. One must act, think, and behave as a white person to be acceptable. Those Hawaiians that are mixed with white blood are at an advantage because they would be more acceptable visually and given more credence because of it and their struggle is less than one who doesn't have that "whiteness". This is American WASP values as to what is more palatable in their eyes; other than that it's an amusement like a pet dog.

Many times over, many non-whites have been burned or scammed by whites that they did get leery of them and even hated their behaviour. This isn't racism; and caution produced profiling when that group of people seem to be doing the injury. Nonetheless, Hawaiians attempt to give people a benefit of a doubt and only when they get burned by people they will get more cautious. When majority of the Hawaiians are expected to prove themselves as being more WASP in their demeanor and thinking than being Hawaiian, then we have a problem. It didn't generate from us but the WASP racist society we live under.

We love Americans no matter what race or color but rebuke the imposition of their society and nation on us. It is foreign = haole to our Hawaiian nation and Hawaiian-Polynesian society. What is acceptable is what we voluntarily adopt, adapt, and become adept with as we incorporate it within our society and not what is enforced upon us. Redefining us and expectations of us is not only genocide, ethnocide, and forced WASP mindset but racist. Therefore the term haole is NOT racist but an identification that doesn't refer to a race of people.

It's all about attitude.
Ironically, the following definition of ha'ole was written by a ha'ole:

"On the scenically spectacular Island of Maui the tourists arrive at Kahalui airport where they jump in their rented cars and drive to their glizty resorts in Ka'anapali, drink pre-mixed Mai Tais while watching hula dancers in synthetic grass skirts, and listen to canned Don Ho music. Haole is not a term of contempt but more of bemused pity. Haoles just don't know any better."

Well said!
aloha tane,

wow, talk about indepth discussion on this topic, you and lana are the ones of great knowledge. lots for all of us to take in and absorb. i find that our up bringing plays alot of our own interpretation in subjects such as these and how our kupuna kahiko (ancestors) raised us up different yet with the same understanding of who we are and where we belong just by the way we address ourselves to one another.
however, i agree with lana when i myself hear the words of a kanaka maoli towards a haole in a disgraceful tone of voice. i was raised that we are all human no matter color of skin, eyes, hair and/or race that we are to still Aloha each other and thats what make us kanaka maoli's one of a kind from the rest. yes, we hear degrading phrases directed at us from foreigners and even from among ourselves but again have we also become a foreigner in our own Kingdom of Hawaii Nei by our conduct that displays No HA (the breath of lfe), this is the questions by my Kupuna's that has brought to my attention that we as kanaka maoli should always show our greatest Aloha no matter what or how we may feel emotionally towards others. ~da princess~
Mahalo Uncle Tane for a clear and to the point description of the olelo.

Is language different for Kanaka? Perhaps Hawaiians attribute more mana to the olelo?

It seems that the American obsession with race can be catching. So what is the cure? I spend a lot of my time on the issue of race and not enough on the business of the Kingdom. How do we return to nationalism and pride in our country [the multi-cultural one] and stay out of the hole we dig for ourselves when we see only skin color?

Last week I sat, watched and listened to the Maui Planing Commission discuss/amend portions of the recoomendations submitted by Maui's....General Plan Acion Committee (GPAC). It was interesting to say the least.

In the end...meaning on each item discussed, NOT the entire PLAN "recommended" to the Planning Commission...Individual words, sentences, etc.were edited, re-phrased, ommitted, etc. I presume to later be accepted/approved for maikng into law.

Unconditionning the the mind...however we explain/articulate the is confronting and extinguishing the falsehoods..."Plantation" Rhetoric/Mentality...Corporate/Societal Prapaganda and spin we see/hear everyday in commericialism/marketing ads.

Those educators in the in POLITICS can do a lot. We in the general communitiy can do our part by confronting corporate marketing (Chief Exploiters), educators & politicians.

How about we start by amending the "Native Hawaiian" definition in the Hawaiian Homes illiminating the 50% minimum blood quatnum and descendants prior to 1778.....reword "Native Hawaiian" to "native Hawaiian" defined as descendants of the original inhabitants and nationals of the Hawaiian Islands (Ka Pae AIna) and Kingdom Government prior to January 17. 1893.

This will allow anyone with a speck of koko automatically qualify...those non-Hawaiians that immigrated and BECAME LAWFUL CITIZENS qualify.


Kou mana`o??
Aloha Foster:

Kauikeaouli established rights of native tenants which are na o iwi. This is an internal law of the Hawaiian Kingdom established by the King (Ka Mo-i). Those rights are superior rights within the kingdom. The other factor is being naturalized and/or born as a Hawai'i national/citizen. The Hawaiian Homes Act is the WASP American system to deal with na iwi as they would native Americans. This is still unacceptable as the guidelines are established by U.S. American using blood quantum despite Kuhio's intentions. The only way to rectify it is for the U.S. to de-occupy our country and let us handle our kuleana. DHHL is still a U.S. Agency but we should assert ourselves as Hawai'i nationals and force the U.S. to comply to our independence and revise their DHHL to include acceptance for all Hawai'i nationals. Na iwi are the ones that should be protected under this belligerent occupation and for now, those lands should be for them as Hawaii nationals regarless of blood quantum. They are the most to lose. Other Hawaii nationals don't have those particular rights and never needed it. The complexion of the make up is quite different than it was in the last century. Following the Bill of Rights and Constitution of 1840 established the conduct of which we should take since then. The rights of native tenants supercedes what the DHHL applies.
i personally attended a hawaiian homes meeting to address our blood quantum policies, today there are very few of us as pure or 50% blood hawaiians living on our kingdom of hawaii nei. because of the diluting of your hawaiian blood at birth most of us are less than 50% hawaiian. and were does this leaves the rest of us hawaiians that want to get on hawaiian home lands because we are native hawaiians, period.
my mother is pure hawaiian and my father filipino, chinese, spanish. i am on the hawaiian homes list for almost 20 yrs. I quaified as an hawaiian but did not make the qualification to come up with a $250 thousand loan. so i go back to the list and wait to make the western american policies of getting a bank loan.
at this meeting with the hawaiian home lands, i fought for a change in policies from 50% quantum to direct lineageship to the ancestors of a kanaka maoli and to allow kanaka maoli's to live on the land without the new western laws of getting a band loan. during the laws of prince kuhio there was NO bank loans requirement the only requirement was the 50% blood quantum. till today i have gotten NO response to this matter, from HHLD. ~da princess~
In whole...the Hawaiian Homes Act...a "US FEDERAL LAW" in a larger context is the problem. The so-called lands for Hawaiian Homes PLUS the rest of the Crown & Government lands are lands ALL Beneficiaries "native Hawaiians"..NOT "Native Hawaiians"......have "legal claims" to.

At the end of the day GOVERNMENT...beit the SOH/USA will always HOLD every kanaka maoli to the "LEGAL" standards and "DEFINITIONS" of law....their Rule of Law....About time we hod them to their LEGAL WORD(S).

Get a Legal Definition for "Native Hawaiian"....Get a LEGAL Definition for "native Hawaiian"

If the State of Hawaii has to settle legal claims with "native Hawaiians" then this implies "Native Hawaiians" do not have legal Hawaii's lands.

Why continue anywhere/anyhow that these two (Native Hawaiian & native Hawaiian) are one and the same....THEY ARE NOT!!
to my understanding of fosters mana'o, is that a Native Hawaiian refers to those non-hawaiians born and raised on our Kingdom of Hawaii, whereas native Hawaiians have lineage to the ancestors of this Kingdom of Kanaka maoli's. if i am correct than all Kanaka maoli's should be ready to search and research their Mo'okuauhau for when that day arrive to adjust the western concept of this new law, we all will be ready to stake our claims of who you are and where you belong as is stated in the Apology Bill that is a public law, signed and sealed by the President and the Congress of Americans.
~da princess~


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