Ke Ao Maoli
Hawaiian Kingdom/Kingdom of Hawaii Facts: Constitutional Monarch Queen Liliuokalani Could Not be Overthrown; An Angel Arrived in Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani's New Constitution was Really the Old One -1864 Constitution - Which
Gave Her More Powers/ Returned the Sovereigns Powers
Researched by Amelia Gora (2020)
The following are excerpts of the January 17, 1893 article about what Constitution created conflict with the foreigners, the Aliens, and the Sellouts/ some kanaka maoli:
In 1887, the missionaries, Aliens had King David Kalakaua sign a Constitution prepared which stripped King Kalakaua of his Sovereign powers.
'On July 6, 1887, King David Kalakaua signed a new constitution for the Kingdom of Hawaii.' Kalakaua signed the prepared Constitution at gunpoint, which led to the document being nicknamed the “Bayonet Constitution" by his sister Princess Liliuokalani who later became Queen Liliuokalani.
"The guns surrounding Kalakaua on that fateful day belonged to members of a militia nicknamed the Honolulu Rifles, made up largely of white settlers. Kalakaua’s successor as monarch, his sister Liliuokalani, later speculated Kalakaua would have been killed had he not signed the new constitution.
The Honolulu Rifles were affiliated with a group called the Hawaiian League, which drafted the new constitution to transfer power from the monarchy to the more settler-friendly legislature. The document also granted suffrage to foreigners (generally Americans and Europeans) by linking the right to vote with property ownership."
Guns Pointed At His Head
King Kalakaua was under duress, stress, usurpation, and coercion.
Duress means that he signed a prepared Constitution which was Not of his doing.
When one is under duress, the contract became null and void.
Unlawful pressure exerted upon a person to coerce that person to perform an act that he or she ordinarily would not perform.
Duress also encompasses the same harm, threats, or restraint exercised upon the affected individual's spouse, child, or parent.
Duress is distinguishable from Undue Influence, a concept employed in the law of wills, in that the latter term involves a wrongdoer who is a fiduciary, one who occupies a position of trust and confidence in regard to the testator, the creator of the will.
Duress also exists where a person is coerced by the wrongful conduct or threat of another to enter into a contract under circumstances that deprive the individual of his or her volition.
As a defense to a civil action, the federal Rules of Civil Procedure require that duress be pleaded affirmatively.
Except with respect to Homicide, a person who is compelled to commit a crime by an unlawful threat from another person to injure him, her, or a third person, will generally not be held responsible for its commission.