Hey everyone...well, I guess it's actually just me right now, but I thought maybe if anyone else joins the group they could introduce themselves and say what their research interests are, that way it might be easier to help people find what they're looking for and we can all get to know each other. I guess I'll start... :)

Aloha, my name is Kamaoli Kuwada. I've researched in the newspapers, at various times: the troublesome transition from Hawaiian to English, Kaluaikoolau, fairy tales translated into Hawaiian, fishing, a little bit about nets, a little about Joseph Poepoe, and some other stuff I can't think of right now. Anyway, if anyone is interested in any of those things, I'd be happy to share.

me ke aloha,

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Aloha Keala,
I'm wondering what kind of secondary source materials you are reading in your approach to theorizing race? It seems to be that there is a lot of scholarship out there--in other words, a huge discussion about race as a social construction and yet your approach seems to suggest that you are thinking about the term 'hapa haole' as an "ours" or "their" possession or imposition. Are you reading only sociological theory or is yours an interdisciplinary branching out that might include works from history, anthropology and cultural studies?

My name is Noelani Arista and I am a PhD candidate in history at Brandeis University and I'm currently an Acting Assistant Professor in History at UH Manoa (writing my dissertation as well.) I'm thinking we should start a hui on here for PhD candidates/ dissertaters---would you be interested in joining?

I'm pleased to make your acquaintance here i ke ao maoli, and am very interested in your work.

Hey Keala,

Another interesting, although maybe not as related, entry point into looking at how race was understood in the kingdom is examining the use of the word "lahui" throughout the Hawaiian-language newspapers. I think it shows that Hawaiians had a different understanding of "race" during that time period.

In the newspaper, "lahui" seems to be used to refer more to the idea of "nation" rather than "race' until control of Hawaii shifts away from Hawaiians. With the influx of Americans and the hopes of Hawaiians to quickly recover the kingdom, you can clearly see the shift in usage from "nation" to "race." Interestingly, the Andrews dictionary definition of "lahui" doesn't include "race" as a definition, yet the Pukui-Elbert dictionary does. These things don't directly tie in to the idea of hapahaole, but it can be used to map the trajectory of Hawaiian understandings of race.

I did some preliminary research in this area, especially as to how "lahui" was used in the coverage of Kaluaikoolau, then the subsequent publication of Kelekona's account of Koolau, and its republication around the time of the Massie trial, and so if these references could somehow be useful, let me know.

me ke aloha,
As the historian in training I would also suggest that you consider a specific time frame for what both you and Kamaoli are interested in focusing on. I think Kamaoli is definitely on to something when he suggests that you look in to the multiple meanings of the word lahui. Again, while I agree that there are shifts in usage and understanding I also think that there is much to be said about ambiguity----that in Hawaiian, words, have multiple meanings and that multipleness should not be ignored or simply replaced bya hard "black/white" distinction or in our case, "Hawaiian/Hapahaole" "race/native" divide.

So much has been suggested by lahui (I mean Hawaiian writers of nation) writers in the past few decades about the influence of Americans and their influx into the islands---but when exactly was this and how long a time span are we talking about? How will we as writers and researchers quantitatively and qualitatively support our argument about "American influence, colonialism or imperialism?" How will we define the term "influence or "control?"

Your quote also comes from 1895, is that when the term is heavily used? What's the usage history of the phrase---this is so interesting! I'm thinking of the OED (Oxford English Dictionary) which allows you to look up a word and see a chronology of its usage and "development" over time.

Finally, I find it striking that the phrase hapahaole as you suggest is being claimed and/or applied to high ranking ali'i. What does this suggest to us about the construction of authority and governance? Do these men also serve in government capacities? In other words was it better to be thought of as part haole in order to serve in governmental capacity? I ask this question because I am dealing with similar issues in my dissertation on 1820-1830 and the role of the foreign and Hawaiian advisers in relation to the ali'i. In 1840s the issue of foreigners serving in government is well known, but what has not been written about is this idea of whether or not "race" has any part to play in influencing who worked in government service.

While you are thinking about the phrase hapa haole in terms of race, I wonder how you will discuss the evolution or rise of the phrase in contradistinction to a competing discourse namely that of kanaka maoli. Or in other words where/when does race compete with or displace a discourse of indigeneity/nativeness?
me ke aloha,

Can I chime in on this dialogue. It would seems from numerous resources that Hawaiians of the 19th century were consciously, even distractingly, aware of race. But there was also alot of reference to hapa kanaka and hapa maoli. They seem to make a distinction but focused more on whether or not one was native as opposed to whether one was foreign.

There are discussions in the nupepa over a law to banish kanaka from drinking rum and there is heated discussion over whether this is meant for natives or nationals in 1875-76.

me ke aloha,
Hey again,

While I agree that we should try to stay away from false binaries like the ones Noe described, I think that examining meaning shift over time would give a broader understanding of the fluidity of meaning construction in terms of race and how societal/cultural contexts come into play to color the meanings and usages of words rather than perpetuate the idea of hard and fast black and white factions.

I also agree with Kaui when she says that Hawaiians were aware of "race," but I think we must look at what they understood it to mean and how it was used in discussions. The simple fact that there are distinctions between kanaka, hapa kanaka, hapa maoli, etc. does not necessarily mean that Hawaiians understood race in the way that Americans understood race in that time or even now. I think we have to be careful about projecting our own contemporary understandings of race onto nineteenth-century Hawaiian society.

If you look at some of the welina-ish kind of stuff included in letters and moolelo at the turn of the century, you can see a clear shift in meaning taking place. Prior to that time, many of the welina dealt with geographical location to set boundaries of who the welina is addressed to, but as time goes on, you see Hawaiian writers starting to use the idea of blood connection to set those boundaries. For example, Kelekona's Ka Moolelo Oiaio o Kaluaikoolau has a lot of references to koko, iwi, and pupuu hookahi kind of stuff that were largely absent in the decades before. By the time of the Massie trial, you see that lahui is being used to describe Hawaiians as just another lahui in Hawaii, on par with the other lahui of Japanese and Chinese immigrants. Anyway, should we move this discussion to the grad student forum or another thread so the people who hoolauna themselves here don't get buried by our discussion?

me ke aloha,
haha,"color the meaning," I like that one. I was thinking we were getting real deep here and should move the discussion to the grad student hui. Thanks Keala for providing us with such a rich subject to consider. Shall we shift this discussion over to that hui then?
Aloha kākou e Kamaoli mā:

ʻOhu kēia. I work conservation biology and so am very interested in history of land use and changes in the Hawaiian landscape. The nūpepa often offer amazing windows on the past, in much the same way that oral traditions of moʻolelo and oli do, so that is what I am usually always conscious of when I explore such sources. Sometimes the mea ola that are described from places amaze me, plants and animals that you never thought were growing in places where there is concrete, or non-native introductions today, for example. I am also always intrigued by inoa wahi, and so place names and the moolelo associated with them always get my attention.
Aloha mai no kakou!
O wau o Lehuanui Watanabe. No Makakilo mai au. Hoihoi no ho'i au i na mo'olelo pili i ka hookipa 'ana o ka po'e Hawai'i, na oli, na hana, na 'ano mea like 'ole. Pili no ho'i au i ka 'olelo Hawai'i... o ia ka mea i ho'opa'a ai i ka wa i hala aku ai. Pela no ka po'e Hawai'i i ho'onui a ho'omau i na mea hawai'i. He kuleana kaka'ikahi no ho'i ko ka Hawai'i, aia no kekahi o kela kuleana ma o ka nupepa Hawai'i. A eia no au e kakoo ana. :) Aia au ma ka polokalamu 'o Religion ma ke Kulanui o Hawai'i ma Manoa a e ho'opau ana i keia kauwela. A'o no ho'i au ma Kamehameha ma Kapalama i ka 'olelo Hawai'i. E ho'i ana au i ke kula no ka hooko ana i ka Ph.D. 'A'ole au e 'ike i hea ana, aka na'e e haalele ana no i hiki ia'u ke 'ike ka 'ao'ao e a'e. Alaila , e ho'i ana au i Hawai'i.
Aloha mai,

ʻO au nō ʻo Liko Puha, formally of the Kīpuka Native Hawaiian Student Center at UH Hilo. A current nūpepa project that I am involved with is the hoʻāno hou of Poepoe's version of "Moolelo Hawaii Kahiko" printed as a serial in "Ka Nai Aupuni" in 1906. Although I have recently relocated to California, I still meet with my group using Skype.

When reading the nūpepa, I look for glimpses of protocol traditions, enjoy the beauty of the mele with particular attention to how punctuation was used to emphasize oli techniques, research place names, wind names, etc.

Mahalo for this group.

Ke aloha nō,
Aloha e Liko e,
How's the Poepoe going? You're working with Kiele ma, ea? We're translating Poepoe's Kamehameha which ran side-by-side with Moolelo Hawaii Kahiko. How's the working with Skype going? One of our translators lives in Waimea, Hawaii, so we were using Yugma and Windows Live Messenger to do our translations. The vagaries of the wireless internet connection at Manoa made it a little tricky, and now she's flying down every month instead. Anyway, glad that you're here and welcome to the group:)

me ke aloha,
Aloha e Kamaoli,

Mahalo for the invite, its exciting to see peoples interests and past research projects and to use the newspapers for its intended purpose of catching a glimpse into the past.

My name is Kau'i Sai-Dudoit, I have had the pleasure of working with the Hawaiian language newspapers for the last five years. I am humbled and in awe of the concerted efforts that our kupuna took to leave their footprints for us to follow.

I look forward to sharing, discussing and learning with everyone, including S.

Me ke aloha no,
Hi Kau'i,
Did you want to tell everyone what kind of work you do with the newspapers or is that kind of secret? Anything interesting you want to post? Ipu Alabata maybe? Anyway, still surprised you're on Maoliworld:)

me ke aloha,


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